The leathered steering wheel has an air-bag fitted for the driver’s protection but the second glove-box on top of the passenger’s side of the dashboard remains just that, a glove-box, rather than containing an air bag for the passenger as is the case with some luxury vehicles. The thickly carpeted boot is rather small _ cramped by BMW’s complex rear suspension.

The stacker is well protected and easy to find. Quietness inside the car is not marred by the V12 engine, even when it is working hard. The V12 is really a stereo six _ a pair of 2.5litre BMW engines harnessed by the crankshaft. There are two fuel injection and ignition systems and should one fail the other will take you home _ the downside is that your top speed will be reduced from 250kmh to 200kmh.

Fuel use of the large engine is far lighter than expected, which is a tribute to the design. It has all the latest design tweaks to make it both fuel efficient and simple to service, a secondary aim sometimes forgotten. Around the city, the fuel figure on test was a thirsty 16.4litres a 100 kilometres. This dropped in the country to a reasonable 11.9 litres a 100 kilometres.


The engine’s massive torque, as expected of the five litres capacity, flattens hills and makes highway overtaking safer and quicker. The four speed ZF automatic transmission makes its shifts smoothly and definitely. Engine management is linked to it in the usual way today so that engine torque is reduced during gearchanges.

Acceleration feels seamless with only an exhaust note change and the flick of the tachometer to mark gear shifts as the car’s speed rises. There are power and economy gear-change programs combined with a third to allow manual use of the lever. Starting off on ice is something of a bother not often encountered in Australia but the 850Ci will manage it with a combination of using higher gears and its Automatic Slip Control (ASC).

ASC links the anti-lock ABS brake sensors, which monitor wheel movement, to the car’s throttle to form a sort of accelerator override. If the rear wheels slip, the slip is first countered by the ABS system gripping the spinning wheel and then reducing the engine’s power by closing off the throttle. It works. It is also something of a fun-bypass for those who may enjoy a little wheel slip in a sports car. .


As a result, BMW has a switch _ as does Honda with its sports NSX _ which allows the driver to bypass the ASC and have a little fun. The next time the driver turns on the car, however, the ASC is automatically reactivated. There is another nice touch in the speed and grip management systems. If the driver has wound down all the windows and is accelerating, the door windows are wound up again automatically when speed reaches 140kmh.

The driver can override this if desired. Luxury best component speakers differ from those which are less expensive in their level of automation and their provision of driving ease, as much as their luxury finish and equipment. While the 850Ci has ample muscle, it is not in the supercar class. It is obviously fast and it has an impressive reserve of power at any speed permitted in Victoria.

It remains a splendidly detailed grand tourer, a cruiser rather than a wheeled blur. Off the mark, the 850Ci’s 0-100 sprint takes a whisker over eight seconds _ reflecting that this is a 1790 kilogram heavyweight rather than a light sports car. The zoom comes with minimal fuss and plenty of aplomb, the steady push forcing the driver to focus further ahead than usual in order to anticipate trouble. From a policeman’s perspective, the car will cruise lock-you-up fast rather than tap-on- the-wrist fast.



 After taking slight salary cuts in the spirit of Government restraint last year, Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and his Cabinet ministers will easily gain the lost dollars when their annual salaries rise in 1986.

Mr. Mulroney will get about $133,000 with his basic pay package of $78,800 plus the Prime Minister’s special tax-free allowance of $54,200, but not including the many other perks of the job which cannot be easily calculated, such as houses and transportation. This year Mr. Mulroney received a salary of $129,900, down slightly from the prime ministerial remuneration of $130,700 in 1984.

car speaker
Finance Minister Michael Wilson, who outlined the ministerial pay cuts in his financial statement of November, 1984, and his Cabinet colleagues will receive $112,900 each. They earned $110,300 in 1985 – a decrease of $500 from the 1984 ministerial salaries of $110,800.

All MPs, including Mr. Mulroney and his 40-member Cabinet, earn a basic pay package which includes a salary of $55,900 plus a tax-free expense allowance based on their riding location. Expenses for MPs from the Northwest Territories will be $24,700 in 1986, while those in 23 other remote ridings, including Mr. Mulroney’s sprawling Quebec riding of Manicouagan, will be $22,900.


MPs in regular ridings will receive $18,600 for their expense allowances. (This is not expected to cover the costs of running their offices, travel to and from their ridings and other perks of the job, which are paid for out of general Commons expenses.) The combination of salary and expense allowance gives ordinary MPs from regular ridings who do not hold party positions a total of $74,500 next year, up from $72,800 in 1985.

The annual Jan. 1 increase, which is roughly calculated at one percentage point below inflation, has not yet been formally set because the Government is awaiting final inflation figures for 1985. Figures given are based on the latest inflation statistics.

The complicated and controversial bill was passed in July, 1981, providing raises retroactive to July, 1980, and the annual increases for senators and the 282 members of Parliament.

The 102 senators now sitting in the 104-seat chamber will earn $64,900 each in 1986, up from $63,400 this year. Senators have a smaller tax- free expense allowance than MPs.

Liberal Leader John Turner and Commons Speaker John Bosley will each earn $117,200 in 1986, up from $114,500, plus other perks, including $2,000 a year for car allowance.

The Prime Minister and Cabinet ministers also get the best 6.5 car speakers allowance, and the Speaker and Deputy Speaker are given yearly rent allowances.


In past years the Opposition Leader and the Commons Speaker have earned the same as Cabinet ministers, but their salaries surpassed those of ministers last year when the Cabinet took its salary cuts.

New Democratic Party Leader Edward Broadbent will pass the six- figure mark in 1986 as his salary increases to $100,300 from $97,900. He had volunteered to take a pay cut last year but the Government did not take him up on his offer.

Others who receive special allowances in addition to their basic pay include the Senate Speaker, Deputy Commons Speaker, House leaders, Government and opposition whips and parliamentary secretaries.

The Government is still examining a report from two former MPs who proposed last summer that MPs should earn three times the national wage average because of the ”xecutive”nature of their work, the long hours and the heavy workload.

Tory Bill Clarke and Liberal Coline Campbell said that instead of the basic pay package, MPs should receive $69,000 in salary plus a tax- free $100 for every day they are in Ottawa while the Commons is sitting. That means MPs would earn $86,700, since MPs sit 177 days a year under Parliament’s fixed calendar.

Mr. Clarke and Ms Campbell, who had been asked to study the subject, also recommended that senators’ salaries be frozen until they amount to only 60 per cent of what MPs make, since they sit only about 60 per cent of the time MPs do, have no constituency work to perform and do not have to undergo the stress and strain of election campaigns.

Mr. Mulroney said when the report was released that there was “no urgency”for the Government to move on the recommendations.

Car Electronics speakers

Car or truck audio speakers undoubtedly are a methods of cell phone activity men and women are making the most of simply were being primary unveiled from the 1930s. Motor vehicles actually simply just received just one audio positioned into your dashboard, but also in this 1970s this technological know-how changed to add in amplifiers in addition to many audio speakers in the car or truck. The attractiveness possesses soared from the time that subsequently many persons search for to help enhance this stock options audio speakers which come into their cars and trucks or maybe swap older, used up people.

With not a beneficial audio system, driving a car very long kilometers is usually ordinary. Currently, audio speakers include a couple of functionality nevertheless. There’re definitely not for simply just new music nowadays. At this point, persons can certainly communicate on their devices as a result of the audio speakers or maybe focus on audio books or maybe classroom sessions. Purchasing audio speakers can certainly think frustrating mainly because you will discover a great number of areas to consider, in addition to the price tag can certainly consist of currently being somewhat low-priced to help being just about approximately the auto there’re fitted with.

Top ten Car or truck Audio speakers already in the market

Audio speakers undoubtedly are a middle aspect in almost any productive audio system. End users can certainly create subwoofers, pre-amplifiers, in addition to amplifiers to help car or truck sound recording programs to reinforce this jamming practical knowledge. Many audio speakers deliver sleek and stylish answers, as well as in-built amplifiers or maybe subwoofers. A number of people opt for audio speakers efficient at giving an excellent noise having many bass sounds, while other people desire equipment of which multiply noise having excessive aspect in addition to subtlety. As soon as in search of truck or car audio speakers, you have to opt for a highly rated model in addition to type. This market gives a large sum connected with car or truck audio speakers having diverse attributes. People can certainly enormously gain from discovering the leading technical specs in addition to aspects of a lot of the market’s major merchandise.

1.Kicker 08KS6930

Most of these Kicker audio speakers deliver outstanding noise excellent. This Kicker 08KS6930 type is a wonderful decision for any person exactly who likes noise excellent in addition to aspect in excess of electric power. Simple mount, that type delivers good noise having outstanding aspect. Even so, in the event the level will increase, small specifics come to be fewer apparent. For making the most beneficial these audio speakers, you will need to squeeze in a bass speaker or subwoofer towards process. Most of these audio speakers deliver the normal volume answer in addition to cope with 20 watts connected with continual electric power with the 88 dB proficiency pace.

2.Alpine SPR-69C

This Alpine SPR-69C audio speakers present you with a fresh noise that has a active connected with aspect. Alpine is usually a dearest car or truck sound recording supplier, in addition to that is a quite popular piece with it is solution assortment. That type is usually extremely versatile plenty of to help engage in a range of musical technology models devoid of burning off perfection, but is not the best option intended for taking part in new music on very good quantities of prints. In contrast, gurus recognize which the type provides an fantastic electric power controlling.

3. Rockford Fosgate P1694

That high-quality number of 6-inch by means of 9-inch audio speakers is perfect to interchange some sort of car’s first fixed devoid of paying an income. Rockford Fosgate P1694 audio speakers deliver good noise on mild level degrees. With the normal volume answer assortment in addition to electric power controlling, most of these car or truck audio speakers are prepared for controlling some sort of 4-ohm impedance heap, that enables intended for variable electrical circuitry layouts.

4. JL Sound recording TR690-TXI

This JL Sound recording TR690-TXI car or truck audio speakers deliver good noise in addition to mild tenderness. JL Sound recording has evolved quite a few high-end audio speakers, along with the TR690-TXI type is usually certainly one of you’re able to send excessive expectations. Though they give some sort of mild production volume, most of these audio speakers cope with some sort of 4-ohm impedance heap. Many people element a couple built-in tweeters, which often provide an extendable with regards to volume answer assortment. Although not made for taking part in bass-heavy tracks, most of these audio speakers present you with a good entire sound recording practical knowledge having very little distortion.

5. Kenwood 6982ie

Loaded with some tweeters in addition to tremendous tweeters, Kenwood 6982ie audio speakers deliver a notable volume answer in addition to noise excellent. Giving some sort of large number of electric power as well as a distinct noise, most of these Kenwood car or truck sound recording audio speakers fulfill the almost all stressful sound recording aficionados.

6. Leading TS-A6993R

Most of these Leading car or truck audio speakers merge good peak-power controlling with the strange volume answer assortment of which extends to ultrasonic frequencies. Entire, Leading TS-A6993R audio speakers deliver good noise excellent as well as a mild production volume, but it really is usually the volume answer which enables these individuals

7. Sony XS-GTX6931

Component of Sony’s XS-GTX brand, most of these car or truck audio speakers deliver 100 watts connected with continual RMS controlling in addition to 600 watts connected with high electric power. With the proficiency status connected with 85 dB, most of these car or truck audio speakers provide not any distortion on practically level levels. Gurus in addition to people recognize the particular usually are a lot of the highest-quality, best car speakers or truck audio speakers readily available.

8. Polk Db691

Polk db691 audio speakers deliver fantastic fresh electric power as well as a distinct noise. Polk car or truck sound recording succeeds with eye-catching both equally skilled reviewers in addition to people on this type. Incorporating an important electric power production having little distortion, most of these audio speakers make a lifelike sound experience.

9. Infinity 9632cf

Highly regarded with regards to entire noise excellent, outstanding number of electric power, in addition to excessive tenderness, most of these audio speakers build a strong in addition to fresh noise. Efficient at significant electric power controlling, this 9632cf is usually one among Infinity’s best-selling products.

10. JBL GTO938

This JBL 6-inch by means of 9-inch car or truck audio speakers deliver nearly sleek noise. By distinct excessive notices into a deeply bass sounds, they furnish a notable volume answer assortment. Most of these JBL audio speakers present you with a good importance for the money as well as a electric power production that is certainly a little bit preceding normal.


A superb speaker system within a car or truck may make driving a car considerably more fulfilling for you from the auto. The right audio speakers will likely be very affordable though however bettering this car’s audio system. As a way to select the right audio speakers, people need to have to learn the selections. Realizing this sorts of audio speakers, the noise excellent, this products from which to choose, more attributes that you can get, the prices, in addition to the importance, will probably assistance people making an increasingly well informed conclusion because of their acquire.

A Few Of My Tricks

1. Take another step with the voice and rewrite the manuscript once more, from third person back to first, or from first person back again to third. Yes, this seems like a lot of work, and it is. But for me, it never fails to add something new, fresh, and vital.

The third-person characters who spent their time in the first-person world emerge opened up, with a more intimate tone, while the first-person characters, as a result of their brief third-person lives, now have steadiennr, quieter, more mature voices.

2. Use pictures. When I was writing Taking Terri Mueller, I had a problem with Terri’s father; I hated him. He was a great dad, relaxed, loving, and attentive, but I hated him for kidnapping his daughter, and the emotion put me into writer’s gridlock.

I came across a magazine picture of a man holding a baby up toward his face and smiling with ecstatic love. I ripped the picture out and taped it over my typewriter. Every day, before I did anything else, I looked at that picture and thought, “This is the way Terri’s father feels about her.

This was how much he loved her as an infant and has gone on loving her.” Finally, I could comprehend how devastating it was for him to think he was going to lose Terri. After that I could write again.

3. Read out loud. The last thing I do is read the manuscript to someone else. The last two words in that sentence are crucial for me. I can read something out loud to myself and be quite satisfied, but when I read the same thing to my husband Harry, the blunders leap out at me.

As for silent reading, it’s amazing how often my eye skips over sentences on the screen that are awkward or unclear. Unheeding, I speed past the extra adjective, the unneeded adverb, but the moment I have to speak them, I stumble. Narrative holes loom bigger, too, when spoken.

4. Talk the talk. Dialogue is tricky. We all have verbal ticks, but putting them into dialogue rarely works. What do people really say when they get mad, when they’re baffled, amused, amazed? I say what I would say, or what I’d like to say. (I’m not confrontational, but I love writing noisy, loud, decisive characters.) Then I write it, then I rewrite it, then I read it out loud.

5. Finally, when you think you have nothing left to do, do this: Go through each chapter as if you must cut it by 1/4, and be merciless with anything that is repetitious, unclear, cliched. Be on the lookout, too, for those bits that make you chuckle fondly or glow a little inwardly. Those are nearly always the ones that ought to come out, where the writer is working too hard at being a Wonderful Writer.

Did I say somewhere that when you get the premise, the hard work is over? Silly me. The most dazzling, dramatic idea to come down the pike in the last decade isn’t worth much if not brought to life, if the characters don’t (as one of my readers once so winningly said) walk along-side the reader. This is what I really want when I write, and what all the work and revisions are about: creating a space and a place that is unique, a world the reader enters and might never want to leave.

A prolific and consistently popular writer for over 20 years, Norma Fox Mazer is the author of 25+novels, collections of short stories, and poetry. Her most recent book Missing Pieces, was published in May, and her earlier novel, Out of Control (Morrow, 1993), was named an American Bookseller “Pick of the List.”

This past summer she conducted a 12-day workshop sponsored by the National Book Foundation for young people affiliated with the Settlement Houses in New York City. An earlier article by Ms. Mazer appeared in the December 1993 Writer.

Whither Our Air and Water?

The US may maintain its air and water quality through the 21st century if it combines environmental monitoring technology with pioneering resource stewardship patterns. Americans use more water than people of other nations. Metal contamination from industries, such as selenium and arsenic from petroleum refineries, must be monitored continually throughout the US.

The United States may well maintain its high-quality air and water through the next century, if it wisely couples advanced technologies with resource stewardship patterns pioneered in the last few decades.

As we approach the natural winter equinox of 1999 and the artificial new millennium, the United States faces environmental concerns for two essentials of life: water and air. In their absence, they assume paramount importance, within hours for water and within minutes for air.

Furthermore, even if their quantity is adequate they may still not be fit to support life if their quality is too degraded, and consequences of declines in quality may be recognized only over the course of a lifetime. Ironically, although air and water are so important to human existence, we often take them for granted.

The two are similar in that quality is a primary concern as we continue to use them for waste disposal. In terms of quantity, however, one certainty is that we will not run out of air, even a century from now. For water, in contrast, shortages could well arise as urban populations swell, leading to chronic overuse of ground and surface waters.

The role of climate

Based on historical records, annual climate variations in most regions of the country are unpredictable. However, the normal pattern of alternating periods of excessive rainfall, droughts, and something in between will persist. For example, a century of rainfall records over much of California averaged 23 inches per year. Yet rainfall exceeded 35 inches in some years and fell below 12 in others. Several consecutive years of low rainfall results in lowered water tables and dwindling surface waters. Such fluctuations make water-usage planning difficult.

Although the amounts of air and freshwater remain approximately the same on a global scale each year, the freshwater available in the United States varies annually. Oceanic warming and cooling trends influence the continentwide vagaries of precipitation. During the El Ni-o year of 1997–98, for example, precipitation was higher than normal in some regions, replenishing falling levels of ground and surface waters. But when water supply reservoirs and groundwaters are continually mined for human use, the additive effects of a high precipitation year may be short-lived, especially if followed by drought.

How much water do we use?

Americans use significantly more water than people of other nations. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) calculates daily per-capita water use by Americans to be 1,400 gallons. The household category includes not only drinking water but also water for lawns and home gardens, bathing, and washing cars, clothes, and dishes. In addition to direct household needs, the amount includes such uses as irrigation for crops and cooling for industries. To contrast, while the per-capita average in the United States is 525,000 gallons per year, in Canada it is 310,000 and in China it is 122,000. The comparisons underscore the large quantity of water required to support the high-quality environment and lifestyle Americans enjoy.

Determining the amount of water people require is difficult, partly due to distinguishing between what is necessary and what is desired. The Water Supply Statement of New York City recently reported that an average family uses about 275 gallons of water per day for personal use. Of this, an average person consumes approximately a half gallon of liquid each day in the form of soft drinks, coffee, tea, and other beverages, as well as plain water. In the New York City metropolitan area, more than nine million people receive approximately 1.3 billion gallons of potable water each day from more than 20 reservoirs and lakes. The amount of household water used by New Yorkers in less than a week could completely fill a 10-foot-diameter pipe running from New York to Los Angeles.

Water and population distribution

The juxtaposition of water availability and population levels is a key consideration in predicting water crises in the country. Problems in a desert habitat such as Phoenix differ from those in a high-rainfall, wetland-rich region like New York. The amount of water required in a region of low humidity for some activities is actually higher due to evaporative water loss. Today, most of Phoenix’s drinking water comes from reservoirs of the Verde and Salt Rivers east of the city or is pumped across the state from the Colorado River, more than 300 miles to the northwest.

As population sizes increase, drinkable and other water demands will follow, in most cases with increasing transport distances. The EPA recognizes 55,000 “community water systems” in the United States–an average of more than 1,000 water supply sources in each state. Inevitably, among these many water systems and sources there are some conflicting demands for limited water supplies, such as cases in which a large metropolitan area requires water that alternatively could be used by smaller communities upstream. As the populations of the smaller communities grow, providing water to support larger population centers downstream may seem less of a priority, with local communities electing to use water for their own needs. Possibilities that come to mind, for example, are magnification of conflicts already beginning to arise between New York City and upstate communities, and between Southern and Northern California.

Adherence to water conservation programs will become essential, lest the experiences of other countries be a foreshadowing of the future of U.S. water demands. According to the WorldWatch Institute publication Last Oasis: Facing Water Scarcity, by Sandra Poster, water supplies in 26 countries were inadequate to support their population sizes as early as 1992. The problem is exacerbated in arid regions such as northern Africa and the Middle East, where 9 of 14 countries are considered to be “water scarce.”

Water sources and factors affecting quality

In the United States, more than half the water for drinking and household use comes from underground sources, many of which are vulnerable to potential contamination from the surface. Some waters are drawn from depths of up to 1,000 feet from underground geologic formations known as aquifers, but most wells are much shallower. The remainder comes from surface waters, including large lakes, reservoirs, and rivers.

Regardless of whether sufficient quantities of water are available in a particular year, constant attention must be given to water quality. Even deep aquifers ultimately receive their water supply from above, and as with surface waters, the water that replenishes an aquifer may carry contaminants, including petroleum products, pesticides, or heavy metals. The EPA currently monitors public water sources for more than 70 chemicals (e.g., lead, arsenic, chlordane), radionuclides, and a host of microorganisms to assure that all these contaminants are prevented from surpassing levels deemed safe for drinking water.

Industry, agriculture, and other anthropogenic activities can severely affect water quality. According to the EPA, the major threat to the quality of freshwater lakes and rivers in the United States is agricultural runoffs. Pesticides (such as lindane and toxaphene) and herbicides (such as alachlor, which is used on row crops) can lower water quality below levels acceptable for human consumption. Nitrogen compounds are common contaminants resulting from fertilizer runoff. In addition, contamination of ground or surface waters by coliform bacteria and giardia, which can cause severe gastrointestinal problems, can occur from improper sewage disposal.

Heavy metal contamination from industries, such as arsenic and selenium from petroleum refineries, or benzene contamination from gas storage tanks, also must be monitored continually throughout the country. Groundwaters in some regions of the United States have become contaminated to levels that preclude their safe use for drinking. For example, as of July 1998, some 3,619 groundwater sites in South Carolina alone were reported to be contaminated–most of them because of leaking underground storage tanks–and in need of monitoring or cleanup. The state’s Department of Health and Environmental Control provides guidelines for establishing a time frame and plan for cleaning up a contaminated site, and public notices of the cleanup plan are given to members of the community who could be affected by the contamination.

Similar problems and programs are found in other states. Not all contaminated sites necessarily affect drinking water supplies, but the overall findings suggest a pervasive pattern of groundwater pollution that, without continual oversight, could eventually invade major aquifers that serve as key sources of water.

Some depleted aquifers in U.S. coastal areas have become victims of saltwater intrusion. Encroachment of saltwater is most likely to become a problem in communities that place high demands on an aquifer that has a hydraulic connection with seawater. When freshwaters are removed too rapidly, seawater fills the void. The result is briny water unsuitable for drinking or many other uses. The state of Mississippi’s most recent groundwater quality report to the EPA indicated instances of brine contamination in some areas.

Air quality

In contrast to water, air is unaffected by how many of us in a region are breathing it, but combustion engine exhausts and chemical releases from industries can diminish air quality significantly. Air quality is worsened by topographic features such as mountain ranges that impound less desirable air, climates having generally calm or idle winds, and atmospheric inversions that keep the air close to the ground. The classic example is Los Angeles, due to a particular suite of characteristics leading to smog.

A blend of the names and ingredients of smoke and fog, smog has been the bane of Los Angeles for almost a century. The primary harmful ingredient of smog is a form of oxygen known as ozone, which can create a serious health situation, especially in the elderly and in people with respiratory problems. Even healthy individuals suffer from heavy smog. As early as 1943 a Smoke and Fumes Commission was appointed to investigate the cause of Los Angeles smog, and since that time the region has continued to take measures to improve air quality.

Today because of strict automobile emissions regulations, California cars have among the cleanest exhausts in the world. Some Californians hope to apply the strict emission standards now imposed on cars to all ground vehicles, as well as to ships and planes. Another goal is to require that one-tenth of the cars sold in the state be electric, rather than gas-powered, by the year 2003. Also, strict regulations apply to smoke-producing industries and other ostensible activities that contribute to smog conditions. The smog problem persists in Los Angeles, but conditions are greatly improved from only a few decades ago. As we progress into the twenty-first century, Los Angeles may well be positioned as a model for managing metropolitan air quality.

Other consequences of air pollution in an industrial society are acid rain and depletion of the ozone layer in the upper atmosphere. The former results from sulfur and nitrogen emissions from industries, and the latter from chlorofluorocarbons. Although few might disagree that releasing major quantities of chemicals into the atmosphere is unlikely to be beneficial environmentally, no direct relationships to respiratory problems have been confirmed from either form of pollution.

Basic ecology: the tragedy of the commons

To the credit of the U.S. citizenry acting through local, state, and federal governments, air and water quality have actually improved nationally in the last two decades. The change is due in great part to passage of the landmark Clean Water Act of 1972 and the Clean Air Act of 1977. But the population of the country continues to increase, both from immigration and the national birth rate. What can be predicted for our air and water resources in the twenty-first century?

An important principle applies to a limited resource, such as water, whose use is shared by a growing population: Ultimately, overuse by some will limit availability to others. Hence, if one person, town, or user group uses or misuses more than its share, another’s portion could be diminished. As a general pattern, such widely shared but limited resources can be called products of “the commons,” and the larger process “the tragedy of the commons,” as first articulated by Garrett Hardin in the 1960s. In the coming century, maintaining clean air and both the quantity and quality of water in the United States will require careful attention, lest they become examples of the tragedy of the commons. Problems, for example, could stem from conflicting demands for using water to support crop production, industrial applications, drinking and other domestic and recreational purposes, and even fisheries and wildlife.

A microcosm of the problems that can arise from the scarcity of water is evident on the heavily populated, semiarid coastal plain of Southern California. The Metropolitan Water District of Southern California (MWDSC) depends on aqueducts and pipelines for much of its water supply from Northern California and the Colorado River, some from sources more than 450 miles away. Water is supplied to more than 15 million people from San Diego to Los Angeles.

During the last decade, conflicts over water usage in Southern California have continued to make the news. Through court rulings, many environmentalists continue to attempt to reduce the amount of water being transported to the region, taking the position that plants and animals would suffer in the lake basins being used as water sources. Toward this end, voters in Santa Barbara defeated a bond issue to provide more water to the region. Environmental organizations that included the Sierra Club and the Audubon Society sought and were granted a temporary restraining order to prevent lowering of the water level in Lake Silverwood near San Bernadino in 1996. The ruling forced the MWDSC, which had planned on the water for domestic use, to issue a “cautious water use” warning to residents of several cities.

In addressing the Southern California water problem, some environmentalists claim that unlimited growth and development is no longer a viable option for a region with such water constraints. Some argue that a national attitude that holds degraded environments and unstable natural ecosystems as acceptable will be far more costly in the long term than the benefits gained from a short-term solution of bringing more water to deserts.

Water wars in the region have already become economically costly. A lawsuit over the use of eminent domain laws to acquire private lands for a storage reservoir project in Riverside County ended in 1997 after four years of litigation. The landowners ultimately received a settlement of more than $40 million from the water district. Nonetheless, the MWDSC has declared that “even under the worst- case drought scenario,” they will be able to supply Southern Californians with imported water through 2010. Of course, that includes only 10 percent of the twenty-first century, and whether the region can sustain itself for several more decades may depend in great part on the rate of population rise and the effectiveness of water conservation efforts.

Recycling efforts have been effective in conserving water use, and as recently as February 1999 the Los Angeles City Council voted to continue an ordinance that apartments and houses being sold must have ultra-low-flow toilets as a water-saving measure. The board’s ruling was not by unanimous vote, however, suggesting that water politics continue. With burgeoning human populations, such controversies, whether in the naturally arid areas of the United States or anywhere in the country during drought cycles, will not abate in the future but will probably escalate.

Complicating the solutions

Solutions for the air and water problems will be affected by not only the size and distribution of the population but also the attitudes of society. Given that few of us like laws and regulations unless they impact minimally on ourselves while controlling abuses by others, the immediacy and severity of an environmental concern are pivotal in framing our attitudes about responding to that concern. One hindrance to making a convincing case that some air and water quality regulations are necessary is that, like acid rain or contaminant seepage into groundwaters, effects can be gradual, requiring many years of detailed studies before a cumulative result is apparent.

Besides for drinking, watering crops, and serving applications in the household and in industry, water is needed to assure the environmental quality of natural habitats. Preserving wetlands for wildlife, open water for recreational pursuits, and rivers and streams for a variety of activities is vital to maintaining a society that is not only prosperous and productive but also sociologically healthy. “The commons” principle applies to most outdoor habitats. Strongly enforced laws may be needed to suppress pollution that does not directly affect human water supplies. For such environmental protection to be effective, an attitude must be instilled among the public that a prosperous nation is commensurate with healthy natural habitats.

Technological and attitudinal keys

Because climate modification seems an unlikely option for enhancing our water supply, we are likely to find solutions for future water problems in two areas: (1) production and distribution of more freshwater, and (2) development of a national ethic to conserve water and to keep it clean.

Among the most economically feasible approaches to acquiring more water, particularly in coastal regions, will be development of the technology necessary to obtain freshwater rapidly and efficiently from brackish or marine sources. Desalinization can now be achieved commercially in three ways. Distillation of saltwater was the first and continues to be the most commonly used method. Saudia Arabia produces more than one-fourth of the world’s desalinated water supply, mostly through distillation plants. In the 1960s, electrodialysis, in which the attraction of ions to electrodes was used in concert with membranes to separate brine from freshwater, was developed. In the 1970s, additional research perfected the reverse osmosis process, in which brackish water is forced hydraulically through membranes to filter out salts.

Desalinization plants now operate in more than 100 countries and are the major sources of water in the Middle East. Currently, desalinization in the United States is predominantly of brackish groundwater through the best reverse osmosis system. The Taunton River Desalinization Plant, planned for completion in 2001 at a brackish estuary in the Boston area, will use reverse osmosis, as will an approved plan for desalinization of brackish groundwater for Hermosa Beach, California. Desalinization could become a common source of water production in major portions of the United States during the next century, as technological efficiency increases and demands on surface and groundwater supplies escalate.

Recycling water, limiting its use for industrial and household applications other than drinking, and encouraging its conservation through practices such as drip irrigation are all approaches that can reduce water use rates as well as the total cost of water. All these methods could become widespread and accepted practices over the next few years or decades as water conservation becomes a necessity. Rigorous regulation of water quality will need to continue. Most surface and underground waters of the United States are in the public domain, and commercial enterprises should no longer be allowed to dump contaminants unrestrained without justification and compensation. Changes, both economic and cultural, will have to be made to effect these necessary reforms.

We should not have to tolerate poor air quality, and therefore we must continue to tighten control on industries that use the air as a dumping ground. Industry resists controlling some forms of air pollution because it is costly, even though consumers ultimately pay the cost. One can expect political resistance to (1) changes that would result in major economic redirection for the nation, and (2) revision of attitudes about who owns the air.

In particular, the use of electric cars would greatly diminish air pollution as well as the contamination of ground and surface waters by gasoline products. Despite the petrochemical industry’s obstinacy, the development of a mind-set that clean air is more important than the continued use of fossil fuels when other options are available will ultimately offset opposition to such changes.

The next century should abound in optimism that water supplies will continue to be abundant and the quality of both air and water in the United States will remain among the highest in the world. We have successfully addressed contamination at all levels through nationally applied laws and guidelines. Continuation of a cooperative public attitude, coupled with innovative technology and increased support for scientific discovery, will serve as a clean air and water model for not only ourselves but the rest of the world in the next century.n

Whit Gibbons is professor of ecology at the University of Georgia and head of the environmental outreach and education program at the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory.

Introduct Car speakers for you

IAN HART dramatically quit the Ibrox board yesterday — just two months after Ally McCoist feared the non-executive director was behind a plot to oust him.
According to a well-placed Rangers source, McCoist was led to believe Hart felt the manager should be shown the door following the 1-0 League Cup defeat to Forfar in August.
However, Hart’s reasoning is thought to actually have centred on McCoist’s postmatch attack on Charles Green as opposed to the result.

In Process

Hart is believed to have been instrumental in bringing Green back to the club for a second spell and the Yorkshireman immediately sparked uproar by telling McCoist he had to win a cup as well as League One. The manager responded by calling Green ‘an embarrassment’. Ironically, it was this outburst, rather than the on-park humiliation, that is alleged to have prompted Hart to seek the manager’s head. In the immediate aftermath of the game, Hart told McCoist there was a need for ‘calmess and stability’.
But an Ibrox insider has told Sportsmail that McCoist was informed Hart had confided in a fellow director that the axe should fall after the manager’s verbal blast. McCoist learned of the alleged plot via a third party and immediately confronted Hart on his car speaker phone — with witnesses present — only for him to deny all knowledge of the conversation. Hart left the club yesterday morning — the official line being to concentrate on his charity work.

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Prospective new chairman Dave King, a key ally of McCoist, is understood to have been fully aware of the boardroom developments. It is believed Hart was behind the disastrous move to bring Green back to the club as a consultant in August — two months after he had quit in disgrace as chief executive. Green, whose consortium had bought the assets for [pounds sterling]5.5million postliquidation in 2012, left the club after a string of controversies in June including alleged links with Craig Whyte, his references to McCoist’s team as the ‘worst in history’ and his casual use of racist language. Following claims that Hart had quit in protest at Craig Mather’s handling of the club, a Rangers source said last night:
‘It’s outrageous that Hart is being portrayed as some kind of victim. He was instrumental in Green’s return to the club. The fact is he wasn’t up to the many difficult questions he’d be facing over this at the AGM.’ Yesterday a Rangers statement read: ‘The company today announces that Ian Hart, non-executive director, has resigned from the board in order to pursue the charitable work in which he is involved more actively.’ McCoist, meanwhile, will try again to land former Hearts skipper Marius Zaliukas in January.
In the meantime, Ottawa has poured money into an expansion of the Stoney Mountain federal penitentiary, north of Winnipeg, where almost half of the inmates are Indian or Metis.
”o me, that is an insult because they are expanding the prison to handle more Indian people,” said Ed Anderson, chief of the Fairford band.


The rehabilitation centre would provide training and post-secondary education, counselling, and mediation between victim and offender, based on traditional native customs and values. It would be designed for Indians who are convicted of property offences and minor crimes.
”ecause people in this situation are nervous, unsure of themselves and intimidated, they take the advice to plead guilty as an easy way out.”
The tribal council, representing seven Indian bands, has been trying for two years to establish a rehabilitation centre for Indian offenders. The proposal has been stalled in the federal and provincial bureaucracy, the chiefs said.

Article of component car speakers

Basic Information

Ingredient speaker  models (referred to as “separates”) aspect split woofers, tweeters, plus crossovers. Pieces give genuine good by using remarkable image resolution while in the motor vehicle, building these folks traditional with really serious acoustic buffs.
A lot of factory-installed plus brand-name motor vehicle speaker systems have not one but two features, mingling your woofer plus tweeter within a person speaker phone (referred to as your “coaxial speaker”). It’s just a practical technique to have superb good originating from a solo speaker phone initial, although the style and design of your woofer plus tweeter will be either lost in such a understanding. As well, your tweeter secured atop a woofer cone is going to continually, to some extent, impact a good mounds maded by a woofer.
Which includes a ingredient speakers, a woofers plus tweeters will be secured alone : each one ingredient might manage so that you can it has the 100 % possibilities, doing away with the matter of your tweeter impeding woofer operation. Extra vital, third party tweeters is often inserted to get highest image resolution plus soundstaging.
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If perhaps you find attractive contributing your great-sounding ingredient speakers to the automobile, consider all of our applying for grants just what exactly to search for inside of a procedure plus apply all of our motor vehicle selector resource to understand which companies accommodate the car

Top 10 component car speakers


· 6-1/2″ Operation Set 2-Way Ingredient Procedure
· Power Taking on:
*  Peak: 320 w a placed and one hundred sixty w each one section
*  RMS: one hundred sixty w a placed and ninety w each one section
· Polyglass cone fabric for your impartial good without the need of pigmentation
· Butyl Rubberized speaker phone beseige to get great excellence
· Processed Aluminum Inside-out Dome tweeter to get smoothness plus distinction by using marvelous off-axis effect
· Partial horn repowering, tilted installing tweeter pod
· Kapton original engineering
· Chrome magnetic accomplish for your gratifying glance
· Separate 0, -3 and also -6dB crossover to get straightforward integration
· 4 ohms impedance
· Grilles plus installing appliance provided
· 1″ high-temperature express coil nailers
· Frequency effect: 60-20, 000 Hz
· Top-mount range: 2-9/16″
· Sensitivity: ninety two. 5dB


· Type-R 6-1/2″ 2-way Ingredient Procedure
· Power Taking on:
o Peak: 660 w a placed and 330 w each one section
o RMS: 230 w a placed and 110 w each one section
· Impedance: five ohms
· Hybrid layered-pulp woofer by using rubberized beseige
· 1″ Sheet ring-dome tweeter
· External crossovers : 12 dB/octave (great -pass) plus 6 dB/octave (low-pass) crossover issues
· Frequency effect: 65 Hz : twenty seven kHz
· Sensitivity: 87 dB
· Top-mount range: 2-5/16″


· 6-1/2″ A-Series 2-Way Ingredient Procedure
· Power Taking on:
· Peak: 350 w a placed and 175 w each one section
· RMS: 120 w a placed and 61 w each one section
· Multilayer Mica Matrix cone fabric
· Elastic Plastic speaker phone beseige
· Soft Dome tweeter by using Send Direct to get higher understanding
· High temps express coil nailers
· Passive crossover multi-level provided
· 4 ohms impedance
· Protective speaker phone grilles
· Frequency effect: 34-32, 000 Hz
· Top-mount range: 2-1/8″
· Sensitivity: 90dB


  • Power Taking on Summit: nine hundred w a two and 301 w each one
    · Power Taking on RMS: 120 w a two and 61 w each one
    · Carbon Mica cone fabric
    · Durable multiple fabric speaker phone beseige
    · 1″ Polyetherimide (PEI) tweeter
    · Flush, Angled plus Work surface mountable
    · High temps express coil nailers
    · Ferrite magnetic continuous-duty motor shape
    · 4 ohms impedance
    · Top-mount range: 2-1/4″

Polk Acoustic MM6501

  • Dynamic Balance® Operater Know-how to get absolute, distortion absolutely free good.
    · Neodymium is actually a scarce the planet fabric most people easily use in all of MM operater magnets, forgetting 461p, that happen to be pertaining to 1/10 a excess fat on the very much the same ceramic magnetic even more robust. Small magnetic usually means a MM6501 pieces accommodate without difficulty within extra uses.
    · Carbon Composite resin Bag based on the spokes on the rim is definitely easily portable, unquestionably will likely not flex for the duration of highs plus appears to be like superb.
    · Woven Window Composite resin Cones aspect marvelous stiffness-to huge relative amount. More affordable huge usually means speedier transients plus small element.
    · Klippel Optimized Pieces to get dependable, distortion-free good.
    · Marine Professional helps ensure a MM6501 is made tricky so that you can hold up against a harshest settings to the waters.
    · Large-Diameter Express Coil nailers (30mm) around operater heightens excellence plus electricity taking on.
    · Wheel-inspired design and style offers by using strong resilience while in the MM grille.
    · Multiple Build Tweeters allow for work surface and also clean installing.


  • titanium-plated IMPP cone
    · 3/4″ a silk duvet dome tweeter
    · high-quality 2-way crossover (five, 000 Hz, 18/dB octave high-pass, 6 dB/octave low-pass)
    · frequency effect 35-20, 000 Hz
    · power vary 8-70 w RMS
    · sensitivity 95. 75 dB
    · top build range 2-5/8″

MOREL Maximo 6

6.5-inch 2-way Motor vehicle Acoustic Ingredient Speakers (Two)

Unit: Maximo 6 Maximo Set
Summit Electricity Taking on: 360 w a placed and one hundred and eighty w each one section
RMS Electricity Taking on: one hundred and eighty w a placed and 95 w each one section
1″ Comfortable Dome tweeter by using EVC know-how
Impedance: five ohms
Rate effect: 50-20, 000 Hz
Understanding: 95. 5 dB
Top-mount range: 2-1/2″
Bottom-mount Range: 2-5/8″
Cutout Measurement: 5-3/4″ x 5-3/4″


· 6-1/2″ 2-Way Beat Set Ingredient Speakers
· Electricity Taking on:
· Peak: 560 w a placed and 280 w each one section
· RMS: 240 w a placed and 120 w each one section
· Impedance: five Ohms
· Rate Effect: 40-22kHz
· Understanding: 95 dB
· Hexatech Aluminum Express Coil nailers Twine
· T-type High-Grade Ferrite Magnetic
· Neodymium Tweeter
· Woofer Installing Range: couple of. 44″
· Tweeter Installing Range: 0. 8″


-6-1/2″ Sedona Set 2-way Motor vehicle Ingredient Speaker systems
– Power Taking on:
– Peak: 100 w a placed and 100 w each one section
-RMS: 100 w a set/ 50 w each one section
-Zirconium blanketed, polypropylene cone woofer
-Rubber beseige
-1/2″ Mylar round tweeter
-Rubber magnetic kick out
-Surface plus flush-mountable tweeter
-Zolon blanketed low-resonance bag
-4 ohms impedance
-1″ Aluminum express coil nailers
-20oz Magnetic shape
-Top-mount range: 2-1/4″
-White airport relationships
-Includes speaker phone grilles


  • 6-1/2″ Dark colored Magic Set 2-Way Ingredient Procedure
    – Power Taking on:
    -Peak: 301 w a placed and 175 w each one section
    -RMS: 175 w a placed and 75 w each one section
    – 2 Manner, 18dB/6dB crossover
    -25mm Comfortable Dome tweeter
    -4 ohms impedance
    -Frequency effect: 30-32, 000 Hz
    -Top-mount range: 2-1/2″
    -Sensitivity: 93dB

Advancing Technology Audio Iindustry

Introduce The Audio Industry

The audio industry turned out in force for the 115th Audio Engineering Society Convention, held October 10-13 in New York. Unlike most other trade shows that are hard-core, undiluted selling vehicles with a few seminars tacked on, the AES show is a protracted engineering seminar that also has some exhibits. Actually, the AES exhibit floor is not too far removed in appearance from a NAMM show; even many of the names are the same–JBL, Yamaha, Peavey, Shure, and AKG. However, unlike NAMM, where most of the attendees spend their time on the exhibit floor, most AES visitors attend to partake of seminars with titles like “Wavelet-Based Multiple Point Equalization of Room Transfer Function,” or “Scalable Perceptual and Lossless Audio Coding Based on MPEG-4 AAC.”

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Advancing Technology Audio Iindustry

However, not all of the presentations are geared exclusively for engineers. Keynote speaker Arif Mardin, whose production credits include Aretha Franklin, Bette Midler, Chaka Khan, the Bee Gees, Stevie Wonder, Jewel, and Norah Jones, cited the challenges presented by advancing technology. He noted how “the visual has eclipsed the music” in the past 20 years, and how performance-altering effects such as quantization and pitch correction may be making us obsessed with perfection–and making stars of less talented entertainers. This, in turn, causes a “dumbing-down” of pop music in the form of easier to-sing melodies with a narrower range and simpler harmonies, ultimately lowering the expectations of audiences and future generations of music makers. However, he also cited the trend’s commercial and artistic benefits, as well as its inevitability: “With hardware becoming more powerful while maintaining its price point, coupled with great innovations in software, the digital revolution is about to kick into its next phase. Affordable technologies like voice and instrument modeling and reverb sampling software, will make the days of MIDI and ADAT look like the Stone Age.” Exhorting audio professionals to use technology responsibly, he said, “The idea is not to use these tools to make records like everybody else does, but to use them to make records like nobody else does. Don’t let the creativity end with the software designers; let’s put these amazing tools to great musical use.”

For m.i. retailers, “audio” means sound gear that gets used by churches, clubs, schools, and touring bands, or the family of products that go into the basic project studio. In the context of the AES show, however, its definition is much broader, encompassing sound reproduction in car audio systems, cellular phones, computer games, intercoms, etc.
The audio industry has a number of well-targeted trade shows–National Association of Broadcasters for the broadcast industry; the National Sound Contractors Assocition show for the companies that install sound systems in stadiums, hotels, and other large facilities; and Infocom, for the broad range of corporate audio and video applications. At a time when the combination of falling prices and a tight economy are squeezing profits for most manufacturers, the broad scope of the AES show has some manufacturers reassessing its value. Summing up a widely held view, one prominent exhibitor said, “As the audio industry ‘umbrella’ show, AES is fun to attend. But we think we’re probably reaching the same audience that we already reach by going to NSCA, NAB, and Infocom, I’m not sum that it’s money well spent.”


A general rethinking of AES’s benefits was apparent to anyone walking the aisles of this year’s show. A number of companies well known in the m.i. industry–Alesis, QSC Audio. Yorkville Sound, to name a few–opted out of the show. Other audio stalwarts like the Harman Professional Group, which includes JBL, dbx, Lexicon, Digitech, and AKG. reduced their exhibit space. As one exhibitor explained. “When business gets tougher, you start examining how you spend your money a lot more carefully. I’m not sure that our past expenditures at AES gave us the appropriate return.
Next year the AES show returns to the West Coast and will be held October 2831 at the Moscone Center in San Francisco.

Stickers set to poke equal-opportunity fun at Mackinac

The fourth edition of Brogan & Partners Convergence Marketing’s “Polisticks” booklet is being printed up, and attendees at the Detroit Regional Chamber’s Mackinac Policy Conference on Mackinac Island this week can look forward to the usual dose of no-holds-barred bipartisan ribbing.
A sneak peek showed a jab (below) at Detroit Councilwoman Kay Everett’s conflict with fellow Councilwoman Sharon McPhail. Alongside is a “West Side” – of Michigan – reference to Betsy DeVos, chairman of the Michigan Republican Party.
A “Kiss Me” sticker offers checkboxes for those in favor of gay rights, last rites, the Christian Right and The Right Christian.
“It’s equal-opportunity naughtiness,” said Marcie Brogan, managing partner at Brogan & Partners. “We don’t have any agenda.”
Brogan said that although she always gets a good reaction from the stickers, she doesn’t see many actually worn at the Mackinac conference.
“I think maybe people are wearing them under their clothing,” she said.
Movement moves to the next level

Movement 2004 organizers threw a party at the Fox Theatre last Wednesday for its main sponsor, Southfield-based Panasonic Automotive Systems Co. of America, that may have marked a maturing point for the five-year old event.
The party, organized by Farmington Hills-based Execution Partners Inc., gave Panasonic executives an opportunity to meet some of the musicians who played during the Memorial Day weekend electronic music festival, as well as to demonstrate its new DVD-audio surround sound car stereo to potential customers from automotive companies.

Derrick May, whose Detroit-based Transmat Events L.L.C. co-produced the three-day Memorial Day weekend event along with electronic music pioneer Kevin Saunderson, said the event has reached a new level of sophistication with corporate sponsorships and partnerships. And yet, May said, it allowed Movement 2004 to stay true to its creative roots.
“For this type of music to be accepted on a corporate level is astounding,” May said. “It’s wonderful … because we don’t get radio airplay necessarily across the country.”

New casino markets to, uh, gambling-starved Detroit

As if metro Detroit doesn’t have enough casino action with three gambling palaces in the city, one in Windsor plus Indian casinos in Mt. Pleasant and points north: Last Friday, Niagara Fallsview Casino Resort promoted its June 8 grand opening with a media breakfast in the Detroit Marriott Renaissance Center.
Owned by the Ontario Lottery & Gaming Corp., the $1.5 billion, 2.5 million-square-foot complex has 150 gaming tables, 3,000 slot machines and a 30-story luxury hotel overlooking the Horseshoe Falls. The Ontario corporation also owns Casino Windsor, which is just back from a worker strike that shut down gambling there for 41 days and gave Detroit’s three casinos their highest revenue ever in April.
Casino Windsor declined to comment on its sister casino trying to lure customers from metro Detroit, said Holly Ward, director of corporate communications.

Doug Kalitta sets NHRA speed record

Not only does Doug Kalitta’s company, Kalitta Charters in Ypsilanti, own a fleet of jets, he’s trying to go as fast as a jet these days. Kalitta, who is better known as a drag racer on the National Hot Rod Association circuit than the owner of a charter air service, set a record in the finals of the Top Fuel event at the Route 66 Nationals in Joliet, Ill., last week.
Kalitta clocked a 4.42-second run at more than 328 mph to beat Brandon Bernstein and collect his first victory this year. Kalitta is the nephew of drag racing legend Connie Kalitta.